The Mighty Maniola: meadow brown butterflies

At first sight, the Meadow brown butterfly might seem a little drab – certainly next to its colourful cousins, like the Peacock or the Red Admiral – but the more I have photographed it (particularly fresh specimens) the more I have come to appreciate what a truly beautiful insect it is.

Meadow Brown (Maniola jurtina) being buzzed by Small Skipper (Thymelicus sylvestris) Scarborough Castle, N Yorks, UK. 14 July 2017. Raymond JC Cannon

The Meadow Brown, Maniola jurtina (Linnaeus, 1758), is one of the most widespread and common of European butterflies, even though it has suffered as a result of many of its grassland habitats being turned into monocultures of cereals. Nevertheless, perhaps because it is such a generalist and its caterpillars can feed on a wide range of host plants (grasses), numbers remain roughly stable throughout Europe (Van Swaay, et al., 2019). It is probably more localised than it was previously, but it seems that it might to be something of a ‘winner’ in the butterfly climate change sweepstakes (Bowler et al., 2015), where some (most) species are predicted to decline and others (the minority) might increase their abundance and distributions, if we give them a chance. Projected change in butterfly abundance under climate change vary from –92% (The dark green fritillary, Argynnis aglaja) to +68% (The Meadow Brown, Maniola jurtina) (Isaac et al., 2011).

Meadow Brown (Maniola jurtina ssp. insularis) Northants, UK. 22 July 2020. Raynond JC Cannon

The Meadow brown is a master of variation. There at least 16 subspecies – probably more for all I know! – throughout its wide Palearctic range; from North Africa, Europe to central Scandinavia and Asia to Western Siberia. There are four subspecies in the UK (see UK Butterflies) but the commonest and by far the most widespread is Maniola jurtina ssp. insularis (Thomson, 1969). That’s the one you will see, unless you are in Ireland, the Isles of Scilly, NW Scotland, the Isle of Man, and the Hebrides.

Meadow Brown (Maniola jurtina) female and buff-tailed bumblebee. Scarborough, N. Yorks, UK. 3 Aug 2020. Raymond JC Cannon

As well as the widespread Meadow Brown (M. jurtina), there are also six other less widespread Maniola species, including three rare island endemics: M. chia on the Greek island of Chios, M. cypricola Cyprus and M. nurag on Sardinia. Certainly worth a holiday, I think, to go and try and see them! Although, apparently these Maniola species are almost indistinguishable morphologically! Indeed, some modern research – using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers – concludes that all seven species within the Maniola genus melt together into a single species complex (Kreuzinger et al., 2015). Probably much to the chagrin of traditional lepidopterists, these researches suggest considering the whole genus as one “super species” M. jurtina.

A nice illustration of the large morphological variation in butterflies of the genus Maniola was provided in a paper by Grill et al. (2004) (below).

Variation in wing pattern in the genus Maniola (Grill et al., 2004). Zoological Museum Amsterdam

Considering them all as one big super species is OK by me, as I am not very good at spotting the differences anyway! I have managed to take quite a lot of photos of the subspecies Maniola jurtina hispulla, but I only know this because it is the only one in Spain! (I think! Perhaps others drift in now and again?). Some, like the beautiful male shown below, do look rather different, but the problem is they don’t all look like this!

Meadow brown (Maniola jurtina hispulla) male. Galicia, Spain, 29 May 2018. Raymond JC Cannon

Male and female Meadow browns can usually be separated using their underwing markings (check out a good butterfly guide) but the differences are most apparent on the uppersides (as shown below). I once came across a courting couple of Meadow browns, and documented their courtship behaviour.

Of course the attractive, mottled brown of the hind-wing underside has a purpose: crypsis! So when they rest on the ground, tilted slightly upwads towards the sun – absorbing its warmth – they are also nicely camouflaged (see below). For more about wing surfaces in thermoregulation, see Dennis (2020).

Meadow Brown (Maniola jurtina) lateral absorbance basking in Spain. Raymond JC Cannon

The Meadow brown is a univoltine species (just one generation a year) and individuals can live for quite along time throughout the summer. Consequently, some of the older, venerable Maniolas, as I like to call them, can become very worn and tatty in appearance! (see below).

Meadow Brown (Maniola jurtina hispulla) worn female. Galicia, Spain. Raymond JC Cannon

The Dusky meadow brown (Hyponephele lycaon) – a species which is found in some parts of Europe, but not the UK – is very similar to M. jurtina, but gives itself away by having a second forewing ocellus (spot) (see below).

Dusky meadow brown (Hyponephele lycaon) female, Macedonia
Charles J. Sharp, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

There is a lot more that could be written about the Meadow brown, which has been studied by a host of eminent lepidopterists in the past. I have included links to some sites illustrating the biology and ecology of this butterfly (below). The genome sequence of M. jurtina has recently been published (Singh et al., 2020) – there are about 36,000 genes – so we can expect lots of fascinating discoveries about this variable and venerable species in the future!

Meadow Brown (Maniola jurtina hispulla) male on Ragged robin. Galicia, Spain. Raymond JC Cannon


Meadow Brown Butterfly and caterpillar (Maniola jurtina)


DE Bowler, P Haase, I Kröncke, O Tackenberg …. (2015). A cross-taxon analysis of the impact of climate change on abundance trends in central Europe. Biological Conservation, 187, 41-50.

Dennis, R. L. (2020). Butterfly Biology Systems: Connections and Interactions in Life History and Behaviour. CABI publishing.

Grill, A., de Vos, R., & van Arkel, J. (2004). The shape of endemics: Notes on male and female genitalia in the genus Maniola (Schrank, 1801),(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Contributions to Zoology73(4), 293-303.

Isaac, Nick J.B.; Girardello, Marco; Brereton, Tom M.; Roy, David B.. (2011). Butterfly abundance in a warming climate: patterns
in space and time are not congruent. Journal of Insect Conservation, 15. 233-240. 10.1007/s10841-010-9340-0

Kreuzinger, A. J., Fiedler, K., Letsch, H., & Grill, A. (2015). Tracing the radiation of Maniola (Nymphalidae) butterflies: new insights from phylogeography hint at one single incompletely differentiated species complex. Ecology and Evolution5(1), 46-58.

Singh, K. S., Hosken, D. J., Wedell, N., Ffrench-Constant, R., Bass, C., Baxter, S., … & Sharma, M. D. (2020). De novo genome assembly of the meadow brown butterfly, Maniola jurtina. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics10(5), 1477-1484.

Van Swaay, C. A., Dennis, E. B., Schmucki, R., Sevilleja, C., Balalaikins, M., Botham, M., … & Roy, D. B. (2019). The EU Butterfly Indicator for Grassland species: 1990-2017. Technical report.


  1. Hi Ray,

    can’t find an easy way to message you on this forum but here is an interesting message about invasive flatowrms, remember them?:

    Paul Jackson


    0777 953 9495

    Hi I’ve just read A Review of the Status of the New Zealand Flat worm in the UK by Moray C Taylor who I believe works at Fera Within this (dated) review it mentioned a lack of available data in some parts of Scotland. I live in SW Scotland DG7 3HQ. Flatworm had reduced the earthworm population in my garden to undetectable levels. In 2018 i introduced approx 200 mixed sp of earthworms to recolonise (I was unaware of the resident flatworm at the time). Since Oct 2020 I’ve started capturing flatworm and have kept a daily tally of numbers, weather conditions etc. Flatworm to date 1375. Earthworm population OK and improving. I’m just wondering if this info might be of interest?


    Kind regards

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